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The sensory information from these organs is processed by the brain.

In insects, many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive—the cell bodies serve only to provide metabolic support and do not participate in signalling.

It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles.

Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone sensation.

The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral ganglia Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.

In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.

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The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system.Most nerves serve both functions and are called mixed nerves.The PNS is divided into a) somatic and b) autonomic nervous system, and c) the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily.Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.

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